The ANMF (Vic Branch) Education Centre uses the APA referencing style.
Contact library staff if you need help with referencing.
Search for examples of referencing styles from the APA website and other education institutes.
Gender-neutral, specific and bias-free language is now included. This is to ensure you are as accurate as possible with your points
|APA (6th ed.)||APA (7th ed.)|
|he, she, he/she||they|
|the poor||people living in poverty|
people between the ages of 65 and 80
|drug users||people who use drugs|
See the APA Style guide for general principles for reducing bias
|Tip for formatting your APA reference list|
|Authors names||Use an ambersand (&) between two or more authors rather than and|
|Journal titles||italicise the title, heading font every first letter of major words is capitalised|
|Title of books||the title is italicised, sentence case states we only give capital first letters following full stops, colon or if proper nouns|
|Page numbers||list numbers completely (176-179, not 176-9 or 176-79)|
|Line spacing||the reference list is double-spaced, with a hanging indent of 1 cm|
|How do I reference video content from YouTube?|
Author, X. (Year, Month Day). Title of video [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/specificurl
Tasmanian Clinical Education Network. (2014). Clinical reasoning masterclass with Professor Tracy Levett-Jones [Video]. YouTube. https://youtu.be/vjC6GKl0eXs
In-text citation: (Tasmanian Clinical Education Network, 2014)
|How do I reference a podcast?|
List the host of the podcast in the author position. The producer may also be given if this would help improve locating the source. In either case, roles should be denoted in brackets following the name:
Aitken, M. (Host). (2020, April 2). Resilience - your health matters with Kim Foster [Audio podcast episode]. In Nurse & Midwife Support. Soundcloud https://soundcloud.com/user-952900756/resilience-with-kim-foster
In-text citation: (Aitken, 2020)
Our online databases will help you format your citations. You will need to double-check the results you get, as the citations often need some clean-up. Here are instructions for our two databases.
EBSCO databases (e.g., CINAHL) - When you click the title of an article, there is a list of Tools to the right of the page for "Print," "E-mail" "Save" and "Cite"; each of these choices gives you an option to include a citation in the APA style.
ProQuest databases (e.g., Nursing & Allied Health Source) - When you have displayed an article, click the "Cite" icon link at the top.
Google Scholar is a great source for government publications, reports, conference papers and academic articles. You can use the Cite link (click on the quotation symbol) to open a list of citation styles to copy to your reference list.
Ask library staff if you need assistance.
Mendeley is a free reference manager and academic social network that can help you organise your research.
Mendeley desktop is available on Mac, Windows and Linux.
EndNote is a licenced reference management tool.
Check with your education or health service if they have an institutional site licenc
The ANMF (Vic Branch) library have created a multimedia tool to assist you with your referencing. It allows you select the type of material that you want to reference (e.g. book, journal article, web page, etc.) and then leads you to an example of a citation and reference for this particular resource type.
|How do I reference an article from a print journal?|
Author or authors,the surname is followed by first initial/s. Year of publication (in round brackets). Article title. Journal Title (in italics), Volume of journal (in italics) Issue number of journal in round brackets (no italics), Page range of article.
Haydon, P. & van der Riet, P. (2014). A narrative inquiry: How do nurses respond to patients' use of humour? Contemporary Nurse 46(2), 197-205
In-text citation: (Haydon & van der Piet, 2014) OR Haydon and van der Piet (2014) have found...
|How do I reference an article from a database?|
Cleaver, C. (2020). Experiences of nurses transitioning to the role of research nurse, Nursing Times, 116(2), 49-52.
In-text citation: (Cleaver, 2020, p. 52) OR Cleaver (2020) asserts "there is no single reason why participants chose to transition" (p. 52)
|How do I reference an article from online?|
Murray, N. (2012). A report on a pilot English language intervention model for undergraduate trainee nurses, Journal of Academic Language & Learning, 6(1), 48-63. http://journal.aall.org.au/index.php/jall/article/view/135/128 [URL must be clickable]
In-text citation: (Murray, 2012)
|How do I reference an article from a DOI?|
Wakimizu et al., (2010). Empowerment process for families rearing children with developmental disorders in Japan, Nursing & Health Sciences, 12(3), 322–328. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1442-2018.2010.00533.x [DOI must be provided as a clickable link]
In-text citation: (Wakimizu et al., 2010)
What is a DOI? Digital object identifier: the unique digital identifier of an electronic document; metadata includes the online location of the document
Where a DOI is available it must be included at the end of the reference, in the format https://doi.org/10.xxxx
|From the Australian Bureau of Statistics:|
Australian Bureau of Statistics. (n.d.). Industrial disputes, Australia (No. 6321.0.55.001). Retrieved August 21, 2020, https://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/0/3B174C96A82857E4CA256EB5007B5722?Opendocument
In-text citation: (Australian Bureau of Statistics, n.d.)
Subsequent in-text citation: (ABS, n.d.)
Use (n.d.) in place of the year and include a retrieval statement for any webpage where the contents are continuously updated and not archived
|How do I reference a government document?|
Municipal Association of Victoria. (2018). Local government workforce and future skills report Victoria. http://www.mav.asn.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0010/21889/Local-Government-Workforce-and-Future-Skills-Report-Victoria-Dec-2018.pdf
In-text citation: (Municipal Association of Victoria, 2014)
Subsequent in-text citation: (MAV, 2014)
|How do I reference a website?|
Electronic publication: Corporate Author, Initial(s). (Year, Month Day). Title of document. Website name*. URL.
WorkSafe Victoria. (2020, July 31) Report a confirmed COVID-19 diagnosis. https://www.worksafe.vic.gov.au/report-confirmed-covid-19-diagnosis
In-text citation: (WorkSafe Victoria, 2020)
*Where the author and name of a webpage are the same, omit the site name.
See Australian Guide to Legal Citation ('AGLC') https://law.unimelb.edu.au/mulr/aglc/about
|How do I reference online Australian Legislation?|
Short Title of Act (in italics) Year (in italics) Jurisdiction abbreviation (in round brackets) Section number and subdivision if applicable Country abbreviation (in round brackets). Reference should cite the electronic source if it is the official version.
Work Health and Safety Act 2011 (Cth) s.19.2 (Austl.) Retrieved from https://www.legislation.gov.au/Details/C2018C00293
In-text citation: The Work Health and Safety Act 2011 (Cth) states ...
|How do I reference a Victorian Act?|
Title of Act (in italics) Year (in italics) Jurisdiction abbreviation (in round brackets) Section number and subdivision if applicable Country abbreviation (in round brackets).
Safe Patient Care (Nurse to Patient and Midwife to Patient Ratios) Act 2015 (Vic) s. 30.1 (Austl.)
In-text citation: ... according to s. 30.1 of the Safe Patient Care (Nurse to Patient and Midwife to Patient Ratios) Act 2015 (Vic) ...
|How do I reference a Case?|
Case name (in italics) Year (in round brackets) Unique court identifer (the case should identify the relevant unique court identifer) Judgement number (this number is allocated by the court for the relevant year)
Robin Hansen v Calvary Health Care Adelaide Limited (2016) FWC 1945 (Austl.). Retrieved from https://jade.io/article/449353
In-text citation: Case name (in italics, comma) and the year (all in round brackets)
... in an unfair dismissal case (Robin Hansen v Calvary Health Care Adelaide Limited, 2016)
If the case was retrieved online, include the direct URL following the country.
|How do I reference an online drug directory?|
Sanofi-Aventis. (n.d) Proctosedyl suppositories [Drug information]. https://www.mimsonline.com.au/Search
In-text citation: (Sanofi-Aventis, n.d.)
Provide the name of the drug or pharmaceutical company that manufactures the drug in the author element of the reference.
Provide the name of the website from which the drug information was obtained in the source element of the reference. If the website name is the same as the author, omit the site name to avoid repetition.
|How do I reference a tweet? Provide the first 20 words of the tweet as the title|
Aiken, L. [@LindaAiken_Penn]. (2020, August 19). New @PENN_CHOPR study in @BMJ_Qual_Saf "Chronic Hospital Nurse Understaffing Meeting #COVID19 " shows minimum nurse staffing legislation pending in NY & IL [Thumbnail with link attached] [Tweet]. Twitter. https://twitter.com/LindaAiken_Penn/status/1295723429685911553?s=20
In-text citation: (Aiken, 2020)
For Twitter posts and profiles (see above) the name of the author (individual or group) is followed by their Twitter handle in [square brackets].
|How do I reference an app ?|
Australian and New Zealand College of Anaesthetists. (2019). Opioid calculator (Version 2.3) [Mobile app.]. http://www.opioidcalculator.com.au/
In-text citation: (Author, Year)