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Library Resource Guides: APA 7th referencing

APA 7th Referencing

Disclaimer: This page is provided as a guide to proper referencing. Your course, department, school, or institute may prescribe specific conventions, and their recommendations supersede these instructions. If you have questions not covered here, check in the APA style guide or ask your course coordinator.

Referencing at ANMF (Vic Branch)

The ANMF (Vic Branch) Education Centre uses the APA referencing style.

Contact library staff if you need help with referencing.

Writing Style Guides

The Australian Government standard manual is useful to assist with writing style. See 'Style rules and conventions' for rules and examples to use when writing workplace reports.

APA online help

Search for examples of referencing styles from the APA website and other education institutes.

Inclusive language in APA 7

Gender-neutral, specific and bias-free language is now included. This is to ensure you are as accurate as possible with your points

APA (6th ed.) APA (7th ed.)
he, she, he/she they
the poor people living in poverty
the elderly

older adults, people between the ages of 65 and 80

drug users people who use drugs
the homeless homeless people, people without housing, people without homes

See the APA Style guide for general principles for reducing bias or the DCFPI Style Guide for Inclusive Language for more specific suggestions for writing and talking about diverse groups of people

Format for an APA reference list

Tip for formatting your  APA reference list
Authors names Use an ampersand (&) between two or more authors rather than and
Journal titles italicise the title, heading font every first letter of major words is capitalised
Title of books the title is italicised, sentence case states we only give capital first letters following full stops, colon or if proper nouns
Page numbers list numbers completely (176-179, not 176-9 or 176-79)
Line spacing the reference list is double-spaced, with a hanging indent of 1 cm
Acceptable abbreviations
no date n.d.
no publisher n.p.

Referencing audiovisual works

How do I reference video content from YouTube?

Author, X. (Year, Month Day). Title of video [Video]. YouTube.

Tasmanian Clinical Education Network. (2014). Clinical reasoning masterclass with Professor Tracy Levett-Jones [Video]. YouTube.

In-text citation: (Tasmanian Clinical Education Network, 2014)

How do I reference a podcast?

List the host of the podcast in the author position. Alternatively, provide the executive producers, if known. In either case, include their role in parentheses. Provide the span of years during which the podcast aired in the date element of the reference.

Munn, F. & Hatchett, R. (Hosts). (2019-present). Nursing standard [Audio podcast episode]. Royal College of Nursing.

In-text citation: (Munn & Hatchett, 2019-present)

How do I reference a podcast episode?

List the host of the podcast in the author position. The producer may also be given if this would help improve locating the source. Provide the specific date on which the podcast episode first aired.

Aitken, M. (Host). (2020, April 2). Resilience - your health matters with Kim Foster [Audio podcast episode]. In Nurse & Midwife Support. Soundcloud.

In-text citation: (Aitken, 2020)

Database citations

Our online databases will help you format your citations. You will need to double-check the results you get, as the citations often need some clean-up. Here are instructions for our two databases.

EBSCO databases (e.g., CINAHL) - When you click the title of an article, there is a list of Tools to the right of the page for "Print," "E-mail" "Save" and "Cite"; each of these choices gives you an option to include a citation in the APA style.

ProQuest databases (e.g., Nursing & Allied Health Source) - When you have displayed an article, click the "Cite" icon link at the top.

Google Scholar is a great source for government publications, reports, conference papers and academic articles. You can use the Cite link (click on the quotation symbol) to open a list of citation styles to copy to your reference list. 

Ask library staff if you need assistance.

Other citation sources

Apps for Referencing

Reference management tools


Mendeley is a free reference manager and academic social network that can help you organise your research.

Mendeley desktop is available on Mac, Windows and Linux.


EndNote is a licenced reference management tool.

Check with your education or health service if they have an institutional site licence

Referencing books


How do I reference a book bone author?

Author, X. (Year). Title: Subtitle. Publisher. [Publication location is not longer required - there are exceptions, e.g. museum works]

In-text citation: (Author, Year)

How do I reference a book by more than one author?

For two authors:

Author, X., & Author, X. (Year). Title. Publisher.

In-text citation: (Author & Author, Year)

For 3 to 20 authors:

Author, X., Author, X., Author, X., & Author, X. (Year). Title. Publisher. [Provide the names of the first 19 authors, insert an ellipsis […] (but no ampersand [&]), then add the final author's name.]

In-text citation: (Author et al., Year)

Lilley, L. L., Rainforth Collins, S. & Snyder, J. S. (2014). Pharmacology and the nursing process (7th ed.). Elsevier Mosby.

In text citation: (Lilley et al., 2014, p. 118) Add page number for direct quotes.
Cite only the surname of the first author followed by et al. and the year. Include page numbers for direct quotes
How do I reference a chapter in an edited book?

Author, X. (year). 'Title of chapter', in Editor's initial + family name (Ed.), Title of book. Publisher.

Example: Jones, B. (2013). ‘Nursing assessment and diagnosis', in J Crisp, C Taylor, C Douglas & G Rebeiro (Eds.), Potter & Perry's Fundamentals of Nursing (4th ed.). Elsevier.

In-text citation: (Jones, 2013)

How do I reference an e-book? Include publisher, do not include the database information

Author, X. (Year). Title of book. Publisher.

In-text citation: (Author, Year)

Referencing articles

How do I reference an article from a print journal?
Author or authors,the surname is followed by first initial/s. Year of publication (in round brackets). Article title. Journal Title (in italics), Volume of journal (in italics) Issue number of journal in round brackets (no italics), Page range of article.
Haydon, P. & van der Riet, P. (2014). A narrative inquiry: How do nurses respond to patients' use of humour? Contemporary Nurse 46(2), 197-205
In-text citation: (Haydon & van der Piet, 2014) OR Haydon and van der Piet (2014) have found...
How do I reference an article from a database?

Cleaver, C. (2020). Experiences of nurses transitioning to the role of research nurse, Nursing Times, 116(2), 49-52. 

In-text citation: (Cleaver, 2020, p. 52) OR Cleaver (2020) asserts "there is no single reason why participants chose to transition" (p. 52)

How do I reference an article from online?

Murray, N. (2012). A report on a pilot English language intervention model for undergraduate trainee nurses, Journal of Academic Language & Learning, 6(1), 48-63. [URL must be clickable]

In-text citation: (Murray, 2012)

How do I reference an article from a DOI?

Wakimizu et al., (2010). Empowerment process for families rearing children with developmental disorders in Japan, Nursing & Health Sciences, 12(3), 322–328. [DOI must be provided as a clickable link]

In-text citation: (Wakimizu et al., 2010) 

What is a DOI? Digital object identifier: the unique digital identifier of an electronic document; metadata includes the online location of the document

Where a DOI is available it must be included at the end of the reference, in the format

Referencing websites

From the Australian Bureau of Statistics:
Australian Bureau of Statistics. (2021). Industrial disputes, Australia. Retrieved March 24, 2021,
In-text citation: (Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2021)
Subsequent in-text citation: (ABS, 2021)
Use (n.d.) in place of the year and include a retrieval statement for any webpage where the contents are continuously updated and not archived
How do I reference a government document?
Municipal Association of Victoria. (2018). Local government workforce and future skills report Victoria.
In-text citation: (Municipal Association of Victoria, 2014)
Subsequent in-text citation: (MAV, 2014)
How do I reference a website?

Electronic publication: Corporate Author, Initial(s). (Year, Month Day). Title of document. Website name*.  URL.

WorkSafe Victoria. (2020, July 31) Report a confirmed COVID-19 diagnosis.

In-text citation: (WorkSafe Victoria, 2020)

*Where the author and name of a webpage are the same, omit the site name.

Referencing legal sources

See Murdoch University APA Legal Materials reference guide 

See also Australian Guide to Legal Citation ('AGLC')

How do I reference online Australian Legislation?

Short Title of Act (in italics) Year (in italics) Jurisdiction abbreviation (in round brackets) Section number and subdivision if applicable Country abbreviation (in round brackets). Reference should cite the electronic source if it is the official version.

Work Health and Safety Act 2011 (Cth) s.19.2 (Austl.) Retrieved from

 In-text citation: The Work Health and Safety Act 2011 (Cth) states ...

How do I reference a Victorian Act?

Title of Act (in italics) Year (in italics) Jurisdiction abbreviation (in round brackets) Section number and subdivision if applicable Country abbreviation (in round brackets). Reference should cite the electronic source if it is the official version, do not include if you are citing from the print version.

Safe Patient Care (Nurse to Patient and Midwife to Patient Ratios) Act 2015 (Vic) s. 30.1 (Austl.) Retrieved from

 In-text citation: ... according to s. 30.1 of the Safe Patient Care (Nurse to Patient and Midwife to Patient Ratios) Act 2015 (Vic) ...

How do I reference a Case?

Case name (in italics) Year (in round brackets) Unique court identifer (the case should identify the relevant unique court identifer) Judgement number (this number is allocated by the court for the relevant year) 

Robin Hansen v Calvary Health Care Adelaide Limited (2016) FWC 1945 (Austl.). Retrieved from

In-text citation: Case name (in italics, comma) and the year (all in round brackets)

... in an unfair dismissal case (Robin Hansen v Calvary Health Care Adelaide Limited, 2016)

If the case was retrieved online, include the direct URL following the country.

Referencing other sources

How do I reference an online drug directory?

Sanofi-Aventis. (n.d) Proctosedyl suppositories [Drug information].

In-text citation: (Sanofi-Aventis, n.d.)

Provide the name of the drug or pharmaceutical company that manufactures the drug in the author element of the reference.

Provide the name of the website from which the drug information was obtained in the source element of the reference. If the website name is the same as the author, omit the site name to avoid repetition.

How do I reference a tweet? Provide the first 20 words of the tweet as the title
Aiken, L. [@LindaAiken_Penn]. (2020, August 19). New @PENN_CHOPR study in @BMJ_Qual_Saf "Chronic Hospital Nurse Understaffing Meeting #COVID19 " shows minimum nurse staffing legislation pending in NY & IL [Thumbnail with link attached] [Tweet]. Twitter. 
In-text citation: (Aiken, 2020)
For Twitter posts and profiles (see above) the name of the author (individual or group) is followed by their Twitter handle in [square brackets].
How do I reference an app ?

Australian and New Zealand College of Anaesthetists. (2019). Opioid calculator (Version 2.3) [Mobile app.].

In-text citation: (Author, Year)

Referencing gamified

Play RefQuest a fun retro style referencing game, with 'fighting', time limits and easy to view tips. The following referencing styles are supported - APA 7th, AGLC, Chicago 17, Vancouver, Harvard Western SydU and MLA 8. 

RefQuest was co-developed by Learning Futures and the Library at Western Sydney University. RefQuest © Copyright 2020 Western Sydney University